White papers

Domain Name System Primer

In this white paper, we give an overview of the Domain Name System, or DNS, one of the pillars of the Internet. We start by understanding the goal: to assign names to named resources on the Internet and to maintain their database. For this, it is important to understand the structure of domain names and DNS zones. The roles of the actors in the system are domain maintainers, registries and Network Information Centers. The structure of delegation of authority will also be clarified. We give an overview of the structure of data available in the DNS, notably, the resource records (RRs) occurring in zone files. We also review the technology side: the DNS protocol, its operations supporting queries of name resolution, zone file transfers necessary to maintain the system and for reverse mapping. We briefly mention the most popular implementations, notably, BIND, which may be the most prevalent DNS server software. This necessitates a little insight into netblocks and Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR). We address the internal security issues of the DNS as well as the crucial role it plays in cybersecurity. Finally, we provide some references for further reading.

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The IP Geolocation API Guide: Why Tracking Web Users’ Whereabouts Matters

Where are our customers? This is one of the questions businesses keep asking because when they know the answer, it is easier to plan out strategic and tactical operations — e.g., reaching out to target audiences, setting up offices and stores, promoting new products, and gaining momentum.

Location is also a crucial element of interacting with clients, and it should not only be taken into consideration by brick-and-mortar organizations but also by online stores whose buyers are scattered all over the Web.

So how can businesses get their hands on such critical information? That’s simple: They can leverage the power behind the IP addresses of their customers with IP geolocation, a technology that enables organizations to obtain location-based data quickly and, as a result, find out where their consumers are.

In this whitepaper, let’s see how employing IP Geolocation API can benefit companies and what its most prominent use cases across industries are.

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WHOIS Databases: Business, Cybersecurity,
and Many More Applications Explored

The Web is a tangle of information. Data is everywhere and finding reliable sources can be a challenge in the era of fake news. Websites, as a prime example, can be informative or misleading. You may get your hands on something useful or be deceived – and learning more about domain owners and assessing whether they’re trustworthy is notoriously hard.

This is where the powers of WHOIS databases come in, whose applications are multiple — ranging from cybersecurity to marketing research to criminal investigation. How so? This white paper considers a variety of use cases.

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Fight against phishing e-mail with WHOIS:
A technical blog based on the 2018 "Airbnb" case

Phishing is a way to obtain sensitive information by sending electronic communication pretending to have come from a reliable, trustworthy partner. According to the 2018 IBM X-Force Threat Intelligence Index, "Despite the increased use of chat and instant messaging applications, email continues to be one of the most widely used communication methods for any organization, and phishing attacks continue to be one of the most successful means of making unknowing insiders open the door to malicious attackers."

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What you should know about WHOIS and Security

If you’ve ever looked at a WHOIS entry, you probably know how much valuable information is contained within the records of just one domain registration. When this information is accurate, it can make getting in touch with other parties on the web a lot easier. In the real world however, accessing consistently accurate WHOIS data is more of a goal than anything else. For every accurate WHOIS record, there are many more inaccurate and sometimes fraudulent records...

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Open WHOIS advocates push for U.S. legislation to counter GDPR

The domain information lookup service WHOIS publishes data about the owners of websites around the world. WHOIS also contains personal information of the European Union (EU) citizens. Further, the database maintains location and infrastructure information of cybercriminals who set up websites with malicious intent...

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Cyber Security Investigation and Analysis

The Internet is not just the hotspot of all things digital and technical. Largely due to its ubiquity and countless (and frequently anonymous) points of entry, the web has given rise to a new breed of outlaw – cybercriminals who prey on the wealth of valuable information available online...

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GDPR’s Chilling Effect on Cybersecurity

The European Union (EU) may unintentionally be giving cyber criminals a helping hand. The EU’s well-intentioned efforts to promote data privacy through its newly launched General Data Protection Regulations (GDPR) have also put handcuffs on the efforts of cybersecurity professionals to protect individuals and organizations from hackers. Unless global Internet authorities and infosec professionals are able to achieve a rapprochement with the EU, black hats may gain unprecedented advantages over white hats. Otherwise, the cybersecurity community will have to develop new approaches to protecting individuals and enterprises against hackers...

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